Effective Communication in Outbreak Management:
development of an evidence-based tool for Europe
Social Marketing analysis of vaccination behaviour,
audience segmentation, and service delivery

The following represents only a summary of the specific SSM contribution to the programme and doesn’t include information on the other parties contributions  An EU funded four year programme commencing February 2012.


 1. To analyse how behavioural influencing approaches including incentives/disincentives can be used to promote service uptake.

 2. To review and analyse current vaccination service delivery to the public and to health care workers, from a customer perspective, in 3-6 European countries from different key clusters.

 3. To develop a prototype audience segmentation model indicating subgroups of people distinguished by attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in relation to uptake - with a particular distinction between the professional (e.g. health care worker) and the public (e.g. particular risk group) audiences.

 4. To develop a clear set of behavioural goals that can act as service impact metrics for different phases of a pandemic, including the pre-pandemic phase.


We will prepare a summary behavioural analysis document indicating how new and emerging understanding about influencing behaviour can be used to design behavioural interventions to promote service uptake. This will include a review of the use of incentives, conditional payments and rewards and disincentives or penalty motivators. The summary document will be informed by a literature review (formal and grey literature) of marketing, behaviour change, economic and design literature, as well as public health literature.

A review and analysis will be conducted of vaccination service delivery to the public and to health care workers, in 3-6 European countries from different key clusters. We will write a ‘Customer (Citizen) Journey Mapping’ report, i.e. describing the path and critical touch points with health service providers, including communication touch points and physical interactions with the service. A map of representative ‘journeys’ will be developed indicating positive and negative touch points and reported blocks/barriers and enabling features to be addressed as part of a service design and communication solutions. To review vaccination service delivery to the public/health care workers, and todevelop the customer journey maps, we will use structure questionnaires and telephone interviews with selected respondents from the general population, and seminars/workshops with health workers/service delivery staff, in 3-6 European countries from different key clusters.

We will write an audience segmentation analysis document indicating key audience types in relation to values, beliefs and behavioural intentions, in 3-6 European countries from different key clusters. This will in particular make a primary distinction between the professional (e.g. health care workers) and the public (e.g. particular risk group) audiences. The document will give insight about how key identified segments of the population view and react to the introduction of large-scale public measures such as vaccination and antiviral therapy. This segmentation will be compared with findings from the other WPs (and adopted if necessary) in WP7.

We will develop a set of specific recommended SMART behavioural metrics (i.e. Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time bound) that can be used by countries to guide intervention responses, and help in measuring the impact of programmes at each stage of the pandemic process. This approach to setting SMART behavioural objectives is a key component of the social marketing approach and is also common good practice in commercial and public sector planning systems. The metrics will be developed using DELPHI consultations with about 50 experts from across Europe. The experts will be asked to participate in two electronic consultation discussion and voting rounds, focusing on the acceptability, relevance and practicality of the recommended behavioural goals. This method will help to build a set of potential metrics for monitoring the success and impact of public facing interventions focused on changing behaviours.

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